Healthcare Law / Kentucky / State Laws · 20 Nov 2023 0

Navigating New Paths in Healthcare: Understanding Kentucky’s ‘Any Willing Provider’ Statutes


In many areas of the U.S., health maintenance organizations (HMOs) have established exclusive relationships with certain doctors, hospitals, and other health-care providers. These collaborations form what is known as “provider networks”. For patients within an HMO, seeking services outside these networks often means higher out-of-pocket expenses or no coverage at all. Kentucky, however, has made strides in challenging this exclusivity through the enactment of two “Any Willing Provider” (AWP) statutes.

What Are the “Any Willing Provider” Statutes?

The essence of Kentucky’s AWP laws is clear: prohibit discrimination by health insurers against providers who are ready and willing to meet the terms and conditions set by the insurer. Specifically, these laws dictate:

  1. A health insurer cannot discriminate against any provider who is willing to comply with the insurer’s terms and conditions for participation.
  2. Any health benefit plan offering chiropractic benefits must permit any licensed chiropractor who agrees to the plan’s terms and conditions to serve as a primary chiropractic provider.

Implications for HMOs

  1. Increased Provider Options for Patients: AWP laws may lead to a broader range of healthcare providers for patients. This can particularly be beneficial in rural areas where there might be a limited number of providers within an exclusive network.
  2. Potential for Increased Costs: While the AWP statutes may increase accessibility, they could also potentially increase costs. If a larger number of providers participate in the HMO networks, the negotiated rates may rise, leading to higher premiums or out-of-pocket expenses.
  3. Quality Control Concerns: One of the reasons HMOs create exclusive networks is to ensure a standard of care. With the introduction of AWP laws, there might be concerns about maintaining consistent care quality if any provider willing to meet the basic terms can join.
  4. Administrative Burdens: Managing a larger pool of providers might introduce administrative challenges for HMOs. Ensuring that all providers adhere to the same regulations, billing practices, and standards might require additional resources.
  5. Empowerment of Chiropractors: The specific mention of chiropractors in the AWP statutes underscores the growing recognition of chiropractic care in the medical community. This provision ensures that chiropractors are not left out of HMO networks, further integrating them into mainstream healthcare.


Kentucky’s “Any Willing Provider” statutes represent an effort to democratize the healthcare landscape, ensuring that patients have access to a wide range of providers and that providers are not unjustly excluded from networks. While the intent is commendable, it remains to be seen how these laws will play out in the broader context of healthcare economics and quality control.

As with any major change in the healthcare system, there will be a period of adjustment and recalibration. Stakeholders, from patients to providers to insurers, will need to collaborate to ensure that the benefits of these laws are realized without compromising on the quality and affordability of care.

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